Thursday, October 1, 2009


Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) a clear liquid which is very similar to the liquid portion of blood(plasma) and contains various salts and products such as sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, chloride, magnesium and glucose.The purpose of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is as a medium for the transport of the chemicals to and from the brain, and also to provide buoyancy and protection for the brain. When there is excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the ventricles of the brain, there is a neurological disorder called Hydrocephalus.

Neha is 24 year old hydrocephalic patient. She can be recognized with her enlarged head. Neha is very hyperactive and is most of the time tied to a chair. She has tendency to be destructive and will fling objects randomly if left unsupervised. She is not able to perform any activities because of her poor eye-hand coordination but she does not like to sit alone. She likes to come to school everyday and sit in the company of other children, watching them play, smiling at times. On the days, when there is holiday, she is very hyperactive and restless at home and insists that she needs to go to school, many times displaying temper tantrums.

Normally, in infancy (usually before 3 years of age) in the case of Hydrocephalus, the head size grows too rapidly and the head becomes too large. The baby's soft spot at the top of the head may be full or tense, and the veins distended.

There are a number of causes of hydrocephalus; these are either developmental or genetic. Genes are not passed from generation to generation unchanged. They go through a process called meiosis when they divide to form gametes; this process mixes the genetic material between the genes. Genes can also be changed by external forces; some substances can cause alterations of the genes, as can radiation. These genetic changes can lead to developmental changes, which were not passed from their parents. Most cases of genetically caused hydrocephalus lead to several malformations, one, or more, of these will affect the nervous system.

In Hydrocephalic adults whom the skull bones have fused, the head size usually doesn't grow abnormally. The increased intracranial pressure can cause headaches, irritability, sleepiness, nausea or vomiting, visual problems, neck pain, seizures (rarely), or a change in behavior, personality or school performance. An inability to concentrate or remember things may also develop. Lethargy, drowsiness, balance problems, and double vision are common symptoms.

Detail information on Hydrocephalus, causes, treatment, history and surgical procedures can be found here


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  3. 我們不是因為快樂而歌唱,而是唱歌使我們快樂 ..................................................


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